TOMATO PLANTS ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)







Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum syn. Lycopersicum esculentum) is a plant of the Solanaceae family, native plants of Central and South America, from Mexico to Peru. Tomato is a short life cycle of plants, can grow as high as 1 to 3 meters. Tomatoes are close relatives of the potato.
The word "tomato" derives from the Nahuatl language, tomatl
The word tomato comes from the Aztec language, one of the Indians is xitomate or xitotomate. Tomato plants originated from countries of Peru and Ecuador, then spread throughout America, especially to areas of tropical climates, as weeds. Spread tomato plants was carried out by birds who ate tomatoes and feces scattered everywhere. Spread the tomato to Europe and Asia conducted by the Spaniards. Tomatoes planted in Indonesia after the arrival of the Dutch. Thus, tomato plants have spread throughout the world, both in the tropics and subtropics.

Tomatoes are an important horticultural commodities, but they produce a good quantity and quality is still low. This is due, among others, hard ground, poor micro-nutrients and hormones, are not balanced fertilization, pest and disease attack, the influence of weather and climate, and farmers' cultivation technical
PT. Natural Nusantara attempt to help farmers in increasing production quantity and quality while maintaining environmental sustainability (Aspects of K-3), so that farmers can compete in the era of free trade.
Tomato is one of the most widely cultivated vegetable in the world. For fruit vegetables, tomatoes are a source of vitamins A and C. Tomatoes grow well at temperatures 20 -27 ° C, the formation of the fruit inhibited at temperatures> 30 ° C or <10 ° C. Tomatoes are best planted in well drained soil, with pH optimum 6.0 -7.0. Tomatoes can be planted as a rotation in paddy fields. Avoid planting tomatoes in fields previously planted with plants of the Solanaceae family, such as: eggplant, peppers, tomatoes and the other to avoid pests and diseases. Some types of tomatoes are cultivated among other things: fresh fruit (usually red in color with variations in shape, size and color); Chery small-fruit; and processing of fruit with a strong red color and high in solids content, according to prepared pasta, soup or sauce. Based on the growth, the tomato is classified as a determinat (check out, short) where the growth of the stem end with a bouquet of flowers, semideterminate or indeterminat (high) growth continual produce leaves and flowers. In indeterminat, allowing a longer harvest period, which may be useful at the time of fluctuating prices, but this kind of need to use a stake and should be trimmed regularly can add labor. For varieties that are planted can be selected based on disease-resistant varieties, adapted to the season, or a hybrid and OP varieties, depending on the need for cultivation.
Investment Centers
Sentra planting tomatoes in the world is in Japan, China, Taiwan, while in Indonesia is an area of Malang.
Plant Type
Tomato plants including crops about 4 months old.

Classification of tomato plants are as follows:
Kingdom: Plantae
(Not included) Eudicots
Division: Spermatophyta
Child Division: Angiospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species: S. lycopersicum
Binomial name
Solanum lycopersicum
Synonym
Lycopersicon lycopersicum
Lycopersicon esculentum



Of the many existing varieties of tomatoes, which many farmers are tomato varieties grown gem, diamonds, precious 206, Zone Symbian soft updates and diamonds. While the survey was done in the field varieties used are Artaloka varieties.
TOMATO VARIETIES
Varieties that are circulating and cultured in Indonesia are: Rachael, Intan, Arthaloka, Bonanza, Crown, etc..
SUPERIOR TOMATO VARIETIES
VARIETY
ADVANTAGES
Lovely Red
This variety originated from Taiwan, height, resistant to hot weather, strong growing, always growing (not stop), cepet fruiting (production), resistant to leaf diseases, on average, one plant can produce 7 Kg / plant, is about 45 besarbuah g / fruit; red oval fruit shape when cooked taste sweet and delicious aroma
Golden Peari This variety originated from Taiwan, the growth will continue to grow, production of> 200 fruits / plant, rounded fruit shape, fruit size small (8-10 g / fruit), ivory-colored orange fruit with good flavor, sugar content of 8.5%, relatively resistant to transport and cherry.
Season Red This variety originated from Taiwan, easy to grow, resistant to hot weather, resistant to powdery mildew disease and bacterial wilt, fruit number About a 300 pieces / plant, small fruit shape (25 grm / fruit), red fruit, sugar content of 6%, hold pengangktan and classified cherry.
Ratna This variety comes from the Philippines, aged early maturity, growth stops, resistant to bacterial wilt disease, but susceptible to late blight, apple fruit shape round, the average fruit weight 40 grm / fruit, red fruit color, smooth and slightly bumpy surface, ideal planting in areas with medium to low altitude, high produksivitas and easily cultivated.
Fortune Originally from Taiwan, grew fast, rich and powerful; Fusarium wilt disease resistance and vertikulum, trata-average production of 5 kg / plant, fruit size medium (50 g / fruit), fruit flesh thickness.
Farmer 301 Originally from Taiwan, growth does not stop, resistant to disease and pest nematodes; rounded fruit shape, fruit weight 180 grm / fruit, solid flesh.
New Wonder no 4 Originally from Taiwan, high adaptability, resistant to fusarium wilt virus, leaf spot and rot-fruit, large fruit weighing 200 grm / fruit, round fruit shape, not easy to crack; resistant to storage and transport.
Moneymarket Originally from the Netherlands; resistant bacterial wilt disease and pest nematodes, fruit weight was (50 gram / fruit) ripe fruits orange
Kada Native to the Americas; resistant to fruit rot disease end-resistant and disease-Fusarium dry patches, round oval shape fruit such as eggs, fruit average weight 90-100 grm / fruit; thick flesh, sweet taste somewhat sour.


GROWTH CONDITIONS
Climate
1. Rainfall that is suitable for the growth of tomato plants is a 750 mm-1250 mm / year. This situation is closely related to soil water availability for plants, especially in areas that are not irrigated. Rainfall is high (lots of rain) can also hamper persarian.
2. Lack of sunlight causes tomato plants susceptible to disease, both parasitic and non parasitic. High intensity of sunlight would produce vitamin C and carotene (provitamin A) is higher. Maximum absorption of nutrients by tomato plants will be achieved when the lighting for 12-14 hours / day, whereas the desired light intensity is 0.25 mj/m2 per hour.
3. Air temperature daily average optimal for growth of tomato plants is a daytime temperature of 18-29 degrees C at night and 10-20 degrees C. For countries that have a four-season use the heater (heater) to set the air during the winter (Photo side), hot air from the heater is channeled into the green house through a flexible line of white.
4. High relative humidity around 25% will stimulate growth for the young tomato plants because of CO2 assimilation for the better through the stomata are open more. However, high relative humidity also stimulates micro plant pests.
Growing Media
1. Tomato plants can be grown in all types of soil, soil from sand to sandy loam soil is fertile, friable, many containing organic material and nutrients and easy merembeskan water. In addition, the roots of tomato plants susceptible to lack of oxygen, therefore the water should not be flooded.
2. Land with a degree of acidity (pH) ranged from 5.5 to 7.0 is suitable for tomato cultivation.
3. In the cultivation of tomato plants, you should choose a location flat topography of the land, so it does not need to be made the terraces and embankments.

Altitude Venue

Tomato plants can grow in different altitude, both in the highlands and the lowlands, depending on varieties. Tomato plants suitable for planting in the highlands such as varieties of diamond, pearl varieties, varieties slope of Kada. While the appropriate varieties grown in lowland varieties such as diamonds, gem varieties, varieties of diamond, LV varieties, varieties CLN. In addition, there are varieties of tomato plants are suitable to be planted in lowland and upland varieties of tomatoes include GH 2, GH 4 varieties of tomatoes, varieties of diamond, pearl varieties.

Planting Pattern
- Plants that are recommended are corn, rice, sorghum, cabbage and beans
- It is recommended that planting or crop intercropping system is interrupted to give the state a less preferred by the organism's body bullies

TECHNICAL GUIDELINES FOR RAISING
Nurseries
Seed Requirements
Technical criteria for the selection of seed is a tomato plant:
a) Select the seed is intact, no defect or injury, because of defective beans are usually difficult to grow.
b) Choose the healthy seeds, mean seed showed no pests or diseases.
c) The seeds or seeds clean from dirt.
d) Select a seed or seeds that are not wrinkled.
Seed Preparation
Procurement of tomato seeds can be done through two ways, namely by buying seed that has been ready to plant or to create their own seed. If the procurement of seeds carried by buying, should buy at the store agricultural seeds reliably provide good quality and have been certified.

Seed seeding technique
Seeds or seeds of tomatoes that have been chosen before the seeded didesinfektan. How, by soaking seeds kedalan fungicide solution for microorganisms that can cause disease die. There are several ways to sow in nursery beds. The first way, the seeds were sown tomatoes evenly on the surface of the plot, then thinly covered soil. Beds made guritan 1 cm deep spaced guritan 5 cm, and seeds sown kedalan guritan evenly and does not stack with each other, then closed again with a thin layer of soil. The second way, by implanting the seeds at planting holes are made with a distance of 5 cm and depth of the planting hole about 1 cm. In one planting hole can be filled in 1 or 2 seed, and thinly covered soil. The third way, direct seeding can be done on the bags that are filled polybag planting medium soil and manure with a ratio of 1:1. Each bag is filled polybag only one seed and buried seed to a depth of about 1 cm. After the seed is planted, seedling media should be moistened with water.

Maintenance Nurseries / seeding
During early growth, maintenance of seedlings in the nursery have been intensified with continuous supervision. Maintenance of seedlings includes the activities:
1. Sprinkling
Watering made since the seed sown into nursery beds until the plants are ready to move into the garden. Watering was carried out 2 times a day, ie morning and evening. Watering should be done using tools / gembor who have fine holes, so as not to damage the seeds or plants that are newly emerging.
2. Weeding
Weeding can be done by directly pulling out the plant pests without equipment. Weeding should be done only as needed to see state of the plant.
3. Fertilization
In addition to the nursery media given manure, chemical fertilizers should also be given adequate NPK as additional fertilizer given after the seeds grow into seedlings.
4. Prevention and eradication of pests
Pests that typically attacks the seeds or seedlings in the nursery come from the class of insects, like ants and nematode groups, such as earthworms. Disease that often attacks from groups of fungi. To prevent the development of pests and diseases can be done soil sterilization. To combat pests and diseases that attack can be sprayed drugs. Insecticides to eradicate pests from the class of insects and fungicide to combat diseases caused by fungi group. The names of formulations that can be used include Furadan 3 g, Dithane Hostathion and Antracol.

Seed removal
Tomato seedlings can be moved to the garden after the age of 30-45 days in the nursery. At the time of planting to the garden, should do more of the seeds that have been aged 30-45 days in order to obtain good plant growth and have high productivity in producing fruit. For that, the seedlings should be selected that looks interesting and good., Namely fresh appearance and their leaves are not damaged. Choose a strong seedlings, namely, vertical growth and choose healthy seedlings, which means that seeds are not attacked by pests and diseases.
A good time to plant tomato seedlings in the garden is a morning or afternoon. At that time the weather is not hot so as to prevent kelayuan in plants.
When move the seedlings in the garden, should pay attention to the ways of good and true. Transfer of seedlings which can damage plant roots careless, so that when the seedlings have been planted it will experience obstacles in the growth and even death.

There are several ways the transfer of seedlings from the nursery are:

1. Unplug the system, ie, seeds that have grown in the nursery and old enough removed carefully. However, prior to the revocation of nursery beds should be moistened with water for easy removal and does not damage the roots.
2. Rotation system, the seeds were taken along with the soil. However, before the seeds were taken telebih soil soaked with water first.
Both ways are mainly intended for breeding that are directly carried out at the nursery soil beds for seeds planted while in the tube or polybags how transfer is first wet the tube, and remove the seeds from the tube and the soil with polybag bag tore.

Media Processing Plant
Preparation
Land preparation for planting seedlings in the garden of production must take into account the time, including the length of seedlings in the nursery to be planted into the garden can be moved to the duration of the process of land preparation until ready to plant. The length of time seedlings about 30-45 days, while the duration of the intensive cultivation of land until ready for planting is 21 days. Therefore, for the right time for planting in the garden, the soil treatment schedule should be done 1-2 weeks after seed is planted.

Land Opening
Intensive cultivation of land which is basically through three stages.
1. The first stage is to turn over the soil so that soil aggregates are located in the inner layer can be lifted to the surface. Earth moving this stage should be done with a plow pulled by animal power or by using a tractor. Land cultivated with a depth of 25 cm-30 cm. Once hijacked, the land is left for 1 week chunks of land for the hijacking quite exposed to wind, sunlight, and so there is a process of oxidation (pemasaman) toxic substances from the soil like a very dangerous sulfide acid plant life.
2. The second phase, soil digemburkan hoeing by a thin layer so that the obtained structure of loose soil or a crumb, as well as to flatten. Furthermore, the ground processing result of this stage is left for 1 week.
3. The third phase, carried out basic fertilization with manure that cook as much as 15-20 tons / ha. Manure application is not yet ripe can affect plant growth, even to shut down the plant because the plant roots not hold heat. At this stage, the land that has been sprinkled with manure back hoe thin and flattened.

Formation of beds
After land preparation is done, the next made-plot plot stretching east toward the West for the sun to evenly spread throughout the plant. Besides making beds, also made the trenches or ditches for irrigation. Beds can be made wide with 1 to 1.2 m width, length adapted to the state land and 30 cm high beds. If planting tomatoes done in the rainy season, beds can be made higher at 40-45 cm. While the size of the trench was made 20-30 cm and width 30 cm depth. Thus the distance between beds is 20-30 cm. Then at around plots made sewerage water beds with 50 cm width, and depth 50 cm.

Calcification
Another thing to consider in land management or land preparation is liming on soils that are too acidic and not in accordance with the requirements of growing plants. Calcification is given in conjunction with ground processing time, because in general, plant roots are not strong against calcification directly, the plants may suffer from stunted growth can even die. Lime that can be used are calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, or limestone walls. Calcification, in addition to raising the soil pH value can also improve soil structure, promote soil microorganism activity in assisting the process of decomposition of soil organic matter and reducing substances that are toxic without eliminating vital substances to another. Dose liming should pay attention to the local soil pH value.

Fertilization
Before the tomato crop is planted, the land must be given a basic fertilizer. Fertilization can be done in 2 ways:
1. Compost or manure that has become the land and TSP sown evenly throughout the beds. Furthermore, soil hoeing until homogeneous for compost or manure and TSP mixed evenly with the soil.
2. At the prescribed distance made a hole as deep as + 15 cm + 20 cm in diameter. The holes are then given manure or compost as much as 0.5 kg (one large handful) and given the TSP as much as + 5 grams. Hole backfilled soil, then stirred so that the compost or manure, TSP and soil mix.

Giving Mulch
Today the use of black-and-silver plastic as mulch (ground cover) has been widely used by farmers. The use of black-and-silver plastic as mulch is more practical than the use of plant remains that have died, such as rice straw.

Planting Technique
Determination of Planting Pattern
Tomatoes can be planted with a spacing of 2 types with dirempel systems and free systems.
1. Dirempel System
Spacing this system is 50 cm x 50 cm or 60 cm x 60 cm, square or an equilateral triangle. How to grow with this system meant that a growing shoots taken (cut) as early as possible, so that the plant has only one stem without branches.
2. Smoking Systems
The size of the free system spacing is 80 cm x 100 cm, 80 cm x 80 cm, 80 cm x 100 cm, 100 cm x 100 cm. The form is used to form squares, segipanjang or an equilateral triangle. Moreover, it can also be made between the lines is 100 cm, and in rows 50-60 cm away. How to grow with this system aims to let the shoots that grow into large branches and may change.

Hole Making Plant
Beds that have been prepared for planting, should be watered the day before first so wet. Then in beds that have been closed are made of plastic mulch the planting hole with a diameter of 7-8 cm deep as 15 cm. Planting holes are made in accordance with predetermined spacing.

How Planting
Planting can be done in the dry season and rainy season. When planting done during the dry season use of plastic mulch or paper alumunium.Mulsa must already be installed on the beds before the seed is planted. If tomatoes are planted in the rainy season put the first transparent plastic roof (translucent) on the beds to be planted.

Plant Maintenance
Spacing and stitching
Stitching is replacing dead plants, broken or abnormal growth, such as stunted growth. Stitching should be done one week after planting. But if one week has seen the plants die, wilt, damaged or abnormal growth, stitching should be done immediately. Another thing that also must be considered in the stitching are the seeds used. Seeds are used to embroider taken from seed reserves have been prepared in conjunction with other non-seed seed reserves.
Penyulamannya way is when the plants are dead, damaged, faded, or normal growth is not revoked, then created a new planting hole place the previous crop, cleaned and given Furadan 0.5 grams, when deemed necessary. After that, new seedlings are planted in place of the previous crop by planting seedlings earlier.

Weeding
Weeds growing on tomato planting area should be weeded so as not to become a competitor in sucking nutrients. Weeds are too many nutrients that will reduce the tomato plants become stunted. Weeds also can become pests and diseases that will attack the tomato crop. Provision of plastic mulch or leaves would reduce weeds.
When weeding can be done 3-4 times depending on the condition of the garden.

Pembubunan
Pembumbunan was to elevate the soil around the plant.
Pembubunan goal is to improve air circulation in the soil and reduce the gases or toxic substances in the soil so plant roots will become more healthy and rapid crop will be big. Dense soil must immediately digemburkan. Pembubunan done carefully and not too deep so as not to damage the plant roots. Injury to the roots will become a place a dangerous disease.

Perempalan or pruning
1. Shoots that grow in axillary panicles must immediately dirempel / trimmed so as not to become a branch. Perempalan performed 1 week later than once. At the height of tomato plants is limited, perempalannya must be done carefully for the last bud not participate dirempel so plants are not too short.
2. Perempalan the good done in the morning for quick dry scar rempalan by: bud tip is held with clean hands, then moved to the right and left until the shoots are off. If late merempel, shoots will branch off the large and difficult.
3. Young branches are already a large branches should be cut with a knife or sharp scissors clean.
4. The height of tomato plants can be limited by cutting edge when the number of dompolan fruit crop has reached 5-7 fruit.

Fertilization
Fertilization aims to stimulate plant growth. The procedure for fertilization are:
1. Having live plants around 1 week after planting, must be given artificial fertilizers. Doses of Urea and KCl with a ratio of 1:1 for each plant between 1-2 grams. Fertilization is done around the plants at a distance of ± 3 cm from the stems of tomato plants and fertilizer and watered land covered with water. Urea and KCl should not be about the plant because it can injure plants.
2. The second fertilization was done when the plants 2-3 weeks after planting a mixture of urea and KCl as much as ± 5 gr. Fertilization is done around the plant stem as far as ± 5 cm and within ± 1 cm and then closed fertilizer soil and watered with water.
3. When at the age of 4 weeks has not been fertile plants still seem to be cultivated again with Urea and KCl as much as 7 grams. Fertilization distance from the stem is made increasingly distant ± 7 cm.

Watering and Irrigation
Water needs in the cultivation of tomato plants is not too much, but it should not be short of water. Giving excessive water in the area of tomato plants can cause tomato plants to grow lengthwise, is unable to absorb nutrients and susceptible to disease. High soil moisture can encourage the growth and development of pathogens that tomato plants can die of poisoning due to reduced oxygen content in the soil. The pores are filled by pressing the oxygen out of water in the soil so the soil becomes anaerobic oxidation processes that cause changes to the reduction process. Ground state thereby causing loss of interest and cause excessive vegetative growth, thereby reducing the growth and development of generative (fruit).
Prolonged water shortages in planting tomatoes may interfere with plant growth at the early stage, resulting in cracking on the fruit when water shortages occur in the formation stage results and may cause loss of interest if water shortages occur during the flowering period.

Marking Installation
Installation stake tomato plants are intended to prevent collapse. Things to note:
1. Marker (lanjaran) made of bamboo or wood with a length between 100-175 centimeters, depending on the varieties. For planting in a modern green house to use the rope (white color) as seen in the picture.
2. Installation stake as early as possible, while still a small plant roots are short, so the roots do not break punctured stake. The root of the injury will facilitate the plant diseases that enter through the wound. Distance marker with tomato stems ± 10-20 cm.
3. How to install a variety of stake, such stake was made upright stake or both ends tied to form a triangle. In order not to be eaten by termites, marker smeared with tar or kerosene.
4. Tomato plants that have reached a height of 10-15 cm should be tied to the stake. Binding of the important do not be too tight to stand up tomato plants. Binding is done by model number 8 so there is no friction between the stem of tomato with a marker that can cause injury. Strap, for example, plastic rope must be clean. Any increase height ± 20 cm, must be done again for the binding of the tomato stem always stand upright.

Pests and diseases of tomato plants
Tomato pests

1. Tomato caterpillar (Heliothis armigera Hubner)
Feature: caterpillar ± 4 cm long and will be getting longer at low temperatures. The color varies from green caterpillar, yellowish green, green brown, brown to black. On the side of the caterpillar body is elongated wavy lines, colored younger. On her body looks a lot of warts and hairy. Egg-shaped yellowish glossy and after 2-4 days change color to brown. Moth wing length when stretched ± 4 cm and body length between 1.5 to 2.0 cm. Brown front wings and rear wings are white with brown edge.
Symptoms: This worm attacks the leaves, flowers and tomatoes. These caterpillars often create holes in tomatoes are moving. The fruit is generally exposed to infection perforated so that the fruit becomes soft rot.
Control: (1) moths attracted to ultraviolet light so that the beam is held trap, (2) eggs and caterpillars adapat collected and burned or turned off, (3) edge of the garden planted corn to reduce attacks on tomato plants, (4) wild plants around tomato planting area is cleaned, (5) sprayed with insecticides such as Diazinon and Cymbush.

2. Aphids green apish
Ticks include families of the order Hemiptera Aphididae often called tomato APHIS, APHIS APHIS tobacco or potatoes. Flea is a vector Green (dealer), so the virus can tomato virus disease. Feature: There are winged lice and there are no wings. The length of the winged lice between 2 to 2.5 mm, head and chest black and brown to yellowish green abdomen. The size of the antenna along its body. Long-winged bug that is not between 1.8 to 2.3 mm yellowish green.
Symptoms: tomato leaves that were attacked the shape ugly, curly, stunted, curved downward, narrowing like a ribbon, chlorosis, mosaic and leaf becomes brittle.
Control: (1) the use of paper mulch to repel fleas as reflecting the sun, (2) wild plants and weeds around the area of tomato plants should dibersihakn krena lice can be a shelter, (3) a mechanical control can be massaged so that ticks by APHIS is dead, (4) chemical control can be done by spraying insecticide. Figure the upper tentacle insects appear yellow.

3. Whiteflies (tick mist, mite kepul)
Ticks include families of the order Hemiptera Aleyrodidae. This bug will jump when disturbed, such as fog or white kepul.
Feature: Long mealybug adults only ± 1 mm yellowish white, covered with white waxy flour, has 2 pairs of wings are white with a stretch of ± 2 mm, and red-eyed. Female whiteflies size greater than male flies. Egg-shaped ellipse between 0.2 to 0.3 mm long. Pulp ± 0.7 mm long, oval shaped and flat and her body like scales on the leaves.
Symptoms: tomato plant that was attacked as shrouded in white flour which when held will fly. The attack resulted in stunted plant growth / dwarf, smaller leaf, and roll up.
Control: (1) use of natural enemies of pests, such as some types of wasps that are parasites of white flies and some types of javelin flies to eat the egg white, (2) weeds around tomato plants should be cleaned so as not to be a host of white flies, (3) plants tomatoes have a virus must be immediately revoked and burned, (4) may be planting tomatoes straw mulch or yellow plastic mulch, (5) sprayed with Diazinon, Malathion, Azinpos-methyl and others. The picture on the top seemed to hang a black insect traps.

4. Aphids thrips
Thrips aphids including the family of the order Thysanoptera Thripidae. Feature: thrips between 1 to 1.2 mm long, black, red lines or red spots. Nymph (young thrips) are white or yellowish white, not wingless and sometimes stained red. Winged adult thrips and tufted hair-tassel. Thrips egg shaped like a kidney or oval.
Symptoms: Thrips suck the liquid on the surface of the leaf where the leaf that has been sucked into white like silver because the air goes into it. In the event of severe attacks, leaves become dry and dead. Young plants are attacked will wither and die.
Control: (1) water-deficient plants were attacked more thrips. To that end, tomato plants should be watered with enough water, (2) weeds in tomato crop areas should be cleaned so as not to become a shelter of thrips, (3) sprayed with insecticides, such as Diazinon, Malathion and Monocrotophos.

5. Fruit flies
These include family Trypetidae Flies (Tephritidae) of the order Diptera. Feature: has a long transparent wings 5-7 mm, body length 6-8 mm. Abdomen light brown with transverse dark brown, dark brown chest with yellow or white spots. Young grubs are white, but when adults yellowish. Maggot ± 1 cm long. Maggots is located in the flesh of fruit. Egg flies small size, length ± 1.2 mm, both ends pointed, and white.
Symptoms: rotten tomatoes to be attacked by fungi or bacteria due. When the fruit is opened will appear there berenga white. Adult Berenga yellowish and the touch will be bouncy as far as ± 30 cm in order to save themselves.
Control: (1) at the time of plowing, the soil should be reversed and allowed several days to several weeks for the sun so that the dead fly pupae, (2) caught by using bait to lure male flies, (3) fruits which are picked and immediately attacked burned, (4) weed in tomato cropping area should always be cleaned.

6. Spotting two mites
These include family Tetranychidae mites of the order Acarina, mites called spotting two because there are spots on his back that is located slightly to the side and black. These mites eat various plants (cosmopolitan and polyphag). These mites are behind the leaf surface with spider-labahnya nest. These mites can transmit the virus. The attacks can occur in the dry season. Characteristics: outer shape is elliptical mites, eight-legged, between 0.3 to 0.4 mm long and pale yellow with black spots on both sides of the back side. His mouth can for piercing and sucking plant fluids. Eggs small size ± 0.15 mm in diameter.
Symptoms: yellowing leaves and shoots, then become brown and dry.
Control: (1) when a lot of rain the population will be reduced, (2) weeds in tomato planting area should always be cleaned, (3) plant tomato varieties resistant mites, (4) sprayed with akarisida for example, ommittee, Kelthane, California or blown Porridge with sulfur powder.

7. Red mite
These include family Tetranychidae mites of the order Acarina., Called the red mite / red pests that attacked the plant because the leaves become red rust. Feature: 8-legged mites and magnitude from 0.3 to 0.5 mm. Female mites dark red or brownish red with some black spots. Foot and mouth look transparent white. Head into one with the chest. His mouth can for piercing and sucking fluids from plant cells. In addition, the mouth can also bite and sawing. Eggs are small, with a diameter of 0.15 mm, and pale yellow or slightly reddish.
Symptoms: The leaves turn red patches of rust. The attacks often occur in the dry season. Severe attack causes plants to become stunted. Behind the leaves of tomato will look fine threads that are woven nest mites. Furthermore, the leaves become dry because the leaves sucked liquid.
Control: (1) weeds in tomato planting area should be cleaned so as not to become a shelter mites, (2) plant varieties that are resistant tomato red mite, (3) natural, will be eaten by a predator mites, thrips are predators and tiger beetles, (4 ) mite population will be reduced if it rains a lot, (5) sprayed with akarisida, for example ommittee, Kelthan, or blasted with sulfur powder.

8. Swollen root nematodes
Characteristics: the shape of the root nematode worm-like small boils over between 200-1000 m. To observe these pests should be used microscope. In the mouth there stylet is shaped like a tapered needle, to pierce and withdraw the fluid in the mouth. Female nematode body size a little fatter.
Symptoms: swollen plant roots elongated or round, as a result of plant (root) will have difficulty getting water from the soil resulting in chlorosis, leaf color that is not normal, stunted growth, withered, small fruit and a bit and quickly grow old. These nematodes attack can reduce production by 50% or more.
Control: (1) do crop rotation with Tagetes patula Tagetes ercta or which produce tiophen to kill nematodes, (2) soil hoeing and allowed some time for sun exposure, (3) flooded soil long enough so that the nematodes die, (4 ) using Nematisida chemicals, such as Furadan, Curater, Petrofur, Indofuran, and Temik, (5) planting resistant varieties of tomatoes, (6) of affected plants should be immediately removed and burned; (7) weeds in the area TAMANAN tomatoes cleared; ( 8) were given organic fertilizer (manure or compost).

Tomato diseases due to fungus
1. Fusarium wilt disease

Infection occurs through the roots, then attack the vascular tissue. Xylem tissues are attacked by a brown color and this attack rapidly toward the top. The flow of water to the leaves is inhibited so that the leaves will wilt and yellowing. This Cendawa forming polypeptides (likomarasmin) that interfere with the plasma membrane permeability, so the journey of water from the bottom up stunted. Symptoms: at night until the morning still seems fresh, but when there's sunlight and evaporation occurs, the plants wither. In the afternoon, may still be fresh again but the next day began to wilt again. Finally, the plant will wilt die. Control: (1) planting of resistant tomato varieties (resistant), (2) given a transparent plastic mulch to raise soil temperature for fusarium disease die, (3) to plant tomato plants in nematode-free soil, (4) using a clean tool from wilt disease, (5) land that has been planted tomato wilt disease should not be planted with tomatoes in a long time and should not be planted tanman which includes solanase; (6) plants that wilt be immediately removed and burned; (7) connected with tomato plants cepokak (Solanum torvum), or crank eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon).
2. Septoria leaf spot
Cause: The fungus Septoria Lycopersici Speg. damaging leaves and tomato plants attacked the young or old. Symptoms: watery small round spots visible on both surfaces of leaves at the bottom. The light brown spots, then become gray with black edges. Diameter ± 2 mm spot. The attack caused severe tomato leaf curl, dry up and fall off. Control: (1) weeds and remaining tomato plants that have died cleared and burned, not buried in soil, (2) do crop rotation, with others of different plant families, (3) planting of resistant tomato plants, (4) sprayed with fungicides such as zineb and maneb.

3. Leaf mold disease
Cause: The fungus Fulvia fulva (CKE) Cif. or who called Cladosporum fulvus CKE. Symptoms: initially visible on the upper leaf surfaces are pale spots (chlorosis) Under chlorotic area, behind the leaves, form spores that first dove-colored then become brown or yellowish green. This disease first attacks the lower leaves, then spread to upper leaves and eventually whole plants fell ill and died. Control: (1) planting of resistant tomato plants, (2) do not grow during the rainy season, (3) sprayed with a fungicide such as Mancozeb (Dithane M-45), Benemyl, (4) biological control can use brevicompactum Penicillium, Trichoderma viride, Hansfordia pulvinata, and Acremonium spp., (5) do crop rotation.

4. Brown spot disease
Cause: Alternaria solani Sor. Symptoms: tomato leaf stricken look round brown or angled, with a diameter of 2-4 mm, and brown to black. Patches that become necrotic tissue that have concentric circle lines. Necrotic tissue is surrounded by a circle of yellow (chlorotic cells). When the attack raged, spots will enlarge and then come together so that the leaves turn yellow, wilt and die. Flowers that are infected will fall. Young or ripe fruits are attacked by this disease become rotten, black, and hollow, and extends to the whole fruit. The disease usually starts from the base of the fruit (stem end), dark brown and sunken, 5-20 mm in diameter and covered with velvety black spore mass. Control: (1) plant disease-free seed or seed terdesinfeksi, (2) diseased plants immediately removed and burned, (3) the former plant tomatoes, eggplant, potatoes, and plants including Solanase not be buried in tomato planting area, but must be collected elsewhere and burned, (4) do crop rotation, (5) watering must use clean water is not contaminated by the disease, (6) drainage should be arranged well so that plants are not flooded by water; (7) weeds in the planting area should be always cleaned; (8) nursery and planting not too tightly; (9) sprayed with carbamat, zineb or maneb.

5. Late blight
Cause: The fungus Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Symptoms: The leaves of tomatoes affected sam brown stained, black pie. At first the tip or side of the leaf, just visible a few millimeters, but eventually extended to the entire leaf and petiole. This disease began to attack the base of the fruit, leading to patches of green watery gray to brown. Control: (1) plants that had been stricken immediately removed and burned, (2) plants that pain should not be buried in tomato planting area, (3) planting of resistant tomato varoetas; (4) do crop rotation, (5) land that has been hoe let some time for sun exposure, (6) sprayed with a fungicide, such as Dithane M-45, Difolatan, zineb, propineb, or maneb.

6. Rhizoctonia fruit rot disease
Cause: The fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk. Symptoms: appear small sunken brown spots. These spots enlarge and concentric circles arise. The color became dark brown spots and the center often cracked. Control: (1) irrigation water must be clean and free of disease, (2) do not be too deep planting, (3) given lanjaran so tomatoes are not touching the ground, (4) given a transparent plastic mulch, (5) planting resistant varieties of tomatoes; (6) do crop rotation; (7) of weeds and plant debris should be cleaned and burned sore; (8) sprayed with a fungicide that has the active ingredient chlorothalonil at intervals of 7-8 days to overcome the incidence of fruit rot disease.

7. Rotten fruit antraknosa
Cause: The fungus Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) Hughes. This disease can attack the fruit, stems and roots of tomato plants. Symptoms: tomato fruit appears to exist a small watery spots, rounded and concave which continues to expand, brown, seems there are concentric circles, and then to black. At the base of the fruit is visible purple spots located near the stalk. When the attack occurred on the roots and stems, the cortex tissue color will be brown and the leaves become wilted. Control: (1) ill crop residues should not be buried in soil, (2) do crop rotation for 1-2 years, (3) given the mulch and lanjaran for fruit does not touch the ground, (4) planting of resistant tomato plants, (5 ) sprayed with a fungicide that has the active ingredient kaptafol.

Tomatoes for Disease Bacteria
1. Wilt disease (Mucus)

Cause: Pseudomonas solanacearum (EF Sm) EFSm. Symptoms: This disease attacked plants wither faster. Plants that have been infected, its leaves are still green but then suddenly wilt, especially the young shoots, and leaves the bottom of the yellowing. Infected plants become stunted, leaves curl downward, and sometimes formed adventitious roots along the stems of tomato. Plants attacked normally would collapse and die. Control: (1) do not rotate crops and plant species of plants belonging to Solanaceae family, (2) weeds in the planting area is cleaned, (3) planting resistant varieties of tomatoes, (4) connected with a rootstock plant cepokak; ( 5) plants sprayed with antibiotics, (6) of sick plants removed and burned; (7) land that had been hoeing allowed some time for adequate exposure to sunlight.

2. Crust of bacteria, bacterial speck
Symptoms: a small watery spots on leaves and stems; this watery spots will dry up, haggard and grayish brown 1-5 mm diameter; tomato plants affected leaves curl downward and dry, the crust resembles a wounded stem length and grayish; who fell ill had chlorotic leaves and autumn, the fruit is attacked at first seem watery spots, then turn into spots bergabus. Control: (1) to rotate crops with different plant families, (2) plant the seeds of a healthy tomato plants, (3) planting of resistant tomato plants, (4) diseased plants should be immediately removed and burned, (5) plants tomatoes are dead should not be buried in soil, (6) watering the plants with water that is clean and free of disease.
In addition to the above diseases is diseases caused by viruses such as tomato mosaic disease, cucumber mosaic disease and disease caused by non-parasitic (physiological) as the end of the fruit rot disease, sun scald disease, illness cracks, pockets of disease and illness excess and deficiency of nutrients. Diseases affecting the tomato crop varieties Artaloka is late blight.

Pest Control Wisely
Tomato pest control can not only rely on toxic chemicals (pesticides). In controlling pests and diseases of tomato, until now the farmers are still based on the use of pesticides. No one, because the results can be cespleng, several hours after spraying, pest mati.Namun make no mistake, if continuously sprayed, especially with only one brand of poison, pest who survive will be immune. Raising the dose of spraying is not the answer to controlling pests that are immune to it. You see, in addition to production costs so swollen, similar cases will be repeated in the future. Furthermore, pesticide residues accumulate in soil and on tomatoes.
Examples of pest immunity cases, one of which has occurred in the central vegetable Pangalengan, Kab. Bandung, West Java. In the 1990s alone, a number of pests are immune to the dozens of brand insecticide (insect poison). Based on the same slasan pesticide manufacturers now formulate a mixture of two active ingredients in one package.

How to Integrate Diverse
Even so will continue to use pesticides, you should combine many brands with different active ingredients. Application carried out alternately. Do not forget, choose selective pesticides, and use as directed on the label indicated kemasan.Untuk reduce the harmful effects of pesticides, preferably in pest and disease control of tomato farmers to apply a variety of ways. This concept is known as integrated pest management (IPM). "The application of IPM is not only valid for one growing season, but includes cropping pattern throughout the year," said Wiwin Setiawati, pest and disease expert at the Research Institute of Vegetables, Lembang, Bandung. Component technology, he added, include the use of varieties tolerant, disease-free seed, balanced fertilizer, crop rotation, utilization of natural enemies, the use of yellow traps and pheromone, selective pesticides, and the threshold control.
Crop rotation seems trivial, but if not done fatal consequences. This is already happening in Garut, West Java. Now there tomato farmers distraught due to new diseases which they christened jaundice. At first glance, the attack of the disease such as alloy leaf blight disease and dry spots. Previously, leaf blight usually attacks during the rainy season. While the dry patches during the dry season. "A variety of drug (pesticides) have been tried, but no one work," said Henry Darmawan, tomato farmers in Pasirwangi, Garut.
According to Arif Darsono, tomato farmers in Sukabumi, West Java, crop rotation is necessary to decide the life cycle of pests and diseases. Therefore, for 13 years farming, he was always apply. Except that, Arif was applying the concept of IPM.

Harvest
Characteristics and Harvest Time

Picking tomatoes can be performed on plants that have been aged 60-100 days after planting, depending on varieties. Tomato varieties that are categorized as indeterminatre have a longer harvest age ranged from 70-100 days after planting can only be picked fruit. The determination of harvest time based solely on age crops are often inaccurate, since many environmental factors that influence it such as: state of the local climate and soil. Criteria for picking the optimal cooking can be seen from the fruit skin color, fruit size, state of the plant leaves and stems of plants, namely as follows:
a) The skin of the fruit changed from green to straw-yellow.
b) the edges of old leaves have dried up.
c) stems of plants yellowing / drying.
Picking time (morning, afternoon, evening) also affects the quality of the harvest. When picking tomatoes is good in the morning or late afternoon and the weather sunny. Harvesting is done in the afternoon of technical terms less favorable because during the day is still ongoing process of photosynthesis, thereby reducing the nutrients contained. In addition, hot weather conditions during the day can increase the temperature in tomatoes that can accelerate the process of transpiration (water evaporation) in the fruit. This condition can cause the shelf life of tomatoes becomes shorter.
How to Harvest
How to reap the fruit of tomato fruit is done by twisting gently until the fruit stalk interruption. Pemutiran fruit must be selected one by one and the ripe fruit. Furthermore, tomatoes are terpetik can be directly incorporated into the basket to be collected at the shelter. Shelters should be prepared tomato crops in the shade or can be made a tent in the garden.

Harvest Period
Picking tomatoes can not be done until 10 times since the ripe fruit picking tomatoes do not coincide. Picking tomatoes can be done once every 2-3 days interval until all the tomatoes out terpetik.

Postharvest
Collection

Tomatoes that have been learned and collected must be cleaned of all dirt from the surface of the skin, either in the form of dust, sprinkling the ground, and the remnants of pesticides and fertilizers are sprayed on leaves during plant maintenance. The tomatoes can be washed with a chemical cleaning dirt and pesticide residues, namely substances and britex brogdex neutral cleaner wax. By washing the fruit to be clean of all dirt and protected from germs, and can lower the temperature in the fruit so that the process of respiration in the fruit can be inhibited.

Sorting and classification
After the tomato fruit is cleaned of dirt, then the next thing to do is sorting and classification. Sorting is done by dividing a large-sized tomatoes and healthy from tomato fruits are small and healthy, tomato fruits that are large or small but terdapt defective or unhealthy.

Storage
Storage techniques to maintain the freshness of tomatoes in a long time in principle is to suppress small as possible occurrence of respiration (breathing) and transpiration (evaporation), thereby inhibiting happen enzymatis / biochemistry that occur in the fruit. Thus, the ripeness of fruit can be delayed until a few days.
How or tomatoes storage techniques are:
a) Storage in a low room temperature (48-50 degrees F) by adjusting the room temperature (85-90%).
b) Storage in a ventilated room without temperature control.
c) indoor storage vacuum (without air).
d) storage by reducing water flowing into or does not flow.
e) Storage with heaps of ice.
3.7.4. Packaging and Transportation
Packaging and transportation are two closely related activities in an effort to protect tomatoes from mechanical damage (friction or impact during transportation). Therefore, the process of packaging and transport must be done properly and carefully for tomatoes that have maintained their quality on the stages of cleaning, sorting and classification, and storage, can still be maintained at the stage of packaging and transportation.
Things that should be considered in packaging are:
a) Equipment must be clean packing.
b) packaging equipment should be made of strong but lightweight materials.
c) The packing of tomatoes should not exceed the capacity of the appliance container.
d) Avoid protruding nails or boards are not flat in the appliance packaging.
e) Give the patron at the base and edge tool with protective material of packaging materials that dry straw or paper cuttings.
f) Instrument container must have ventilation holes in the walls.
g) Arrange the tomato fruit as neat as possible within the means of packaging in accordance with its maximum capacity.
h) Close packing crate with the tied or nailed to be strong.
ONE OF THE ALTERNATIVE deal with falling prices is to plant tomatoes OUTDOOR TOMATO PLANTING SEASON.
If so then we must be prepared to risk that may occur, the risk of crop failure and others, but if done carefully and wisely it will produce good results. This is the trick to growing tomatoes out of season

MIND POWER OUTDOOR SEASON TOMATO.
Over the past three months (January, February and March) tomatoes seemed to disappear from the market. If any, the price soared to Rp 5,000, - per kg. at the wholesale level in the central market Kramat Jati, Jakarta. While at the consumer level, the itinerant vegetable trader in Jakarta, tomato forced to sell grain. Medium size (1 kg. Contents 8) for Rp 1,000, - per item. Small (1 kg. The contents of 14) USD 500, - per item. Until the price of tomatoes at the consumer level in DKI is around Rp 7,000, - sd. Rp 8,000, - per kg. Although lately the price of chillies also soared, but this commodity have never disappeared from the market. Currently, tomatoes on the market, in addition to high prices, the quality is too bad. So far, the most widely cultivated tomato in Indonesia is the curly varieties (Lycopersicum validum) which by the society as a tomato called Gondol.
Variety plateau is preferred because it is oval shaped, thick flesh, few seeds and impact resistant up to be transported long distances without experiencing a lot of damage. In addition to tomatoes Gondol, which was widely cultivated tomato farmers are apple (Lycopersicum pyriforme). So called because its fruit form similar to apples. Same with Gondol tomatoes, tomato apple cultivation is also always on the plateau above 1000 m. asl. For example, in Cipanas (kab. Cianjur), Selabintana (Kab. Sukabumi) and Lembang (Bandung kab.). Gondol Planting tomatoes and apples in the highlands during the rainy season the risk is very high. Therefore, few farmers dare to plant tomatoes. Which they grow mostly vegetables with a low risk, such as leek, celery and carrots.
In addition to Gondol tomatoes and apples, there are actually tomatoes Cery tiny but dompolannya contains lots of fruits, which are often referred to as Ranti tomato (Lycopersicum pimpinellifolium). Unlike Gondol tomatoes and apples are only suitable to be cultivated in the highlands, Cery tolerant to tomato grown in plain medium to low. Cery planting tomatoes on the beach, it still managed to either the same as in the mid-to high plains. Even plants can bear fruit earlier. Before the 1970s, the wild tomato plants Ranti just on the outskirts of the fields. No farmer who membudidayakannya. Even now, these types of tomatoes grown only limited by the limited consumer as well. Actually, there is one type of tomatoes again, that the community is often referred to as a vegetable tomato (Lycopersicum commune). If the tomato-sized apples, 1 kg. content of 8 to. 14 pieces, then large-sized tomatoes, 1 kg. content of 6 to. 10 pieces.
If the shape of tomatoes and apples tend Gondol elongated (oval), then the tomato vegetable shaped somewhat compressed (flattened). Vegetable tomato skin surface uneven and bumpy in accordance with the segment cavity of the seed. Flesh thin tomato vegetable seeds while a lot. Excess tomato vegetable is suitable to be cultivated in the lowlands to moderate between 0 sd. 800 m. asl with excellent results. This type of tomato is also relatively resistant to fusarium fungus disease attacks and pseudomonas bacteria. Until patani dare membudidayakannya in the rainy season in the fields. Tomato is the most widely cultivated species in the district. Magelang and Semarang in Central Java. But the area of cultivation is very limited until production volume is also small. Tomato type is only marketed and consumed by the people of Central Java and are rarely able to enter markets of Jakarta.
Tomato vegetable farmers in Central Java, always produce their own seed. They chose the fruit of the largest, with perfect form and maintained until it is completely cooked. Tomato seeds are going to split soon after they are picked and taken seed. Seeds are using a hands knead and then smeared on hibiscus leaves and flattened. Beroleskan hibiscus leaves are then dried seeds in a way aerated (hanged) in the shade. After the seeds dried tomatoes, immediately retrieved and collected in a winnowing tray to dry until completely dry. If the seed will be planted next year, the farmers put in a colored bottle, close it with corn cobs and put it on the rack above the stove. With such storage, then the production itself is resistant seed stored for 1 year with the ability to grow is still pretty good.
Tomato vegetable farmers in Central Java, the relative can compete in production costs, because they do not buy seeds. Local breeder seed production of tomato, which is famous, it costs around Rp 175,000, - per 0.1 kg. (1 ounce). Needs seeds for one hectare of land about 0.75 sd. 0.1 kg. While the import of seeds worth about Rp 450,000, - per 0.1 kg. Plant population is usually between 16 000 sd. 25,000 per hectare. The cost of seed, among others, which resulted in this somewhat lazy farmers to cultivate tomatoes in the rainy season. Tomato seeds of local and imported apples, are also very sensitive to fusarium and pseudomonas when cultivated in the rainy season. Therefore we need a clear plastic lid or a pesticide (fungicide and bactericide) with high doses. Value of the cost of pesticides as well as clear plastic for the lid, is about Rp 3,000,000, - per hectare per cropping season. Therefore, farmers prefer not to take the risk of cultivating tomatoes in the rainy season.
In contrast, tomato vegetable cultivated in the rainy season in the fields of intermediate terrain, absolutely not require a plastic lid and pesticides. However, lower levels of productivity. If tomatoes apples in the highlands are able to produce about 3 kg. per plant, the tomato vegetable only about 2 kg. per plant. If the population of 25,000 apple tomato plants per hectare, the results reached 75 tonnes per hectare per cropping season. While tomato vegetable, with a population of 16,000 per hectare result, only 32 tonnes per hectare. But it does not require cost seeds and pesticides or plastic lid, actually benefit farmers in the plains medium tomato vegetable relatih still pretty good. Capital tomato vegetable farmer, per hectare per growing season is only about Rp 8.000.000, - per hectare per cropping season. While not require containment and pesticides, tomatoes should still be given a stake (wood as a monkey).
Capital to raise tomatoes apples in the highlands, most sekikit already reached Rp 15.000.000, - per hectare per cropping season. Until the cost of tomato production in the highlands of apples on average USD 200, - per kg. With the results of 32 tons per hectare and cost of Rp 8.000.000, - then the production costs of tomato vegetable USD 250, - higher than Rp 50, - compared Gondol tomato / tomato apple. But in prektek, our farmers are very difficult to achieve the standard of 30 tons of vegetable production of tomato and tomato Gondol / apple 75 tons per hectare per cropping season. The average tomato production is only about 20 tons of vegetable and tomato Gondol / apple is only about 40 tons. The reason is the degradation factor of seed, fertilizer low dose and minimal use of pesticides. Therefore the cost of tomato production among farmers we can reach about USD 700, - per kg. In rainy season, the cost per kg. can be more than Rp 1,000, - because of the high mortality and the level of fruit damage. This is what is causing the farmers to be lazy to cultivate tomatoes in the rainy season.
In addition to diseases caused by Pseudomonas and Fusarium attack, which would interfere with tomatoes during the rainy season is late blight caused phytophtora, curling and mosaic virus, nematodes (root worms), fruit pest caterpillars and snails. In conditions of economic crisis, as now, farmers like face simalakama fruit. To overcome the various pests and diseases of tomatoes, they require considerable capital. Although the price they will receive is also quite good, but banks and other financial institutions are still not ready to finance agricultural activities in Indonesia. However, if four farmer-funded Rp 20.000.000, - per hectare or Rp 5,000,000, - per farmer, they will mempu generate at least 50 tons of tomatoes during the growing season. Cost per kg. only USD 400, - If the volume of a normal harvest, farmers are difficult to sell their tomatoes at Rp 3,000, - per kg. in the garden. The highest is only Rp 1,000, - per kg.
With the price of Rp 1,000, - in the garden too, benefit farmers has reached 150% of capital within a period of only 6 months. Until the actual credit with commercial interest of 18% per year is still very mild. In conditions like today, both farmers, consumers and banking institutions are very disadvantaged. Farmers had only to plant carrots, caisim, celery etc.. with almost no cost and risk. But the margins they earn is also very low. If the government, banking institutions and farmer organizations are willing to build a system, then in the rainy season, all parties will benefit. Consumers benefit because the tomatoes still available in the market with reasonable prices. Price USD 2000, - sd. Rp 3,000, - per kg. at the consumer level is still very reasonable. Farmers also benefit because the benefit of 150% per 0.5 years is relatively very high. Banks also benefit because the money for activities produktiv marketed behavior.
System like that, until now there has been no. Directorate of Vegetable Crops, Directorate General of Horticulture Department of Agriculture for instance, the database did not have a vegetable farmer. Unlike in Malaysia and Thailand which are both developing countries. They already have a database of vegetable growers. Until the production of the rainy season keeps going on, while in the dry season planting areas are also controlled. Thus in Thailand and Malaysia, are rare tomato price volatility that is too sharp. In our country, in every dry season, the price of tomatoes at the farm level could fall only Rp 300, - per kg. At that time, at the bus station and the sidewalk in Jakarta, tomatoes with very good quality on sale for Rp 1,000, - per kg. or per item under $ 100, - And now, tomatoes with poorer quality, with price per item Rp 1,000, - could be a bone of contention in the handyman vegetable. I do not know how long these conditions will occur in our country.
Greetings farmer

Hartoyo
Ref . htysite - Restsindo

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